Cancer 1995 Aug 15;76(4):631-7
BACKGROUND. Two recently reported randomized trials, one among patients with advanced breast cancer and the other among patients with early stage melanoma, suggested that social support may affect survival favorably. This study assesses relationships of social support indicators with 7-year survival among women diagnosed with localized or regional stage breast cancer.
METHODS. All newly diagnosed patients with surgically treated localized or regional disease in seven Quebec City hospitals in 1984 were considered for this analysis. Among 235 eligible patients, 224 (95%) participated in a home interview 3 months after surgery. This interview provided information on the use of confidants in the 3 months after surgery. Data on disease and treatment characteristics were abstracted from patients' medical records.
RESULTS. Compared with women who used no confidant in the 3 months after surgery, the hazard ratio for the 7-year period was 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-1.12) among those who had used at least one confidant, 0.54 (95% CI, 0.28-1.06) in women who used two or more types of confidant, and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.22-1.18) among those whose confidants included either physician or nurse. These results were adjusted for age, presence of invaded axillary lymph nodes, adjuvant radiotherapy, and adjuvant systemic therapy (hormone or chemotherapy).
CONCLUSION. These results support the view that social support may be associated with longer survival among women with localized or regional stage breast cancer.
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada. email@example.com
PURPOSE: Although psychosocial intervention can reduce psychosocial distress following breast cancer, many women who are experiencing problems are not identified and offered additional help. This trial assessed effects on quality of life of psychologic distress screening among newly diagnosed, nonmetastatic breast cancer patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1990 to 1992, all eligible patients in one regional breast cancer center were identified and offered study participation. Women in both control and experimental groups received brief psychosocial intervention from a social worker at initial treatment. The experimental group also had monthly telephone screening of distress levels using a brief, validated instrument, with additional psychosocial intervention offered only to those with high distress at screening.
RESULTS: Among 282 eligible patients, 89% were randomized and completed the study. Participants' psychologic distress levels decreased over the study period (P = .0001). However, no between-group differences were observed. Mean distress scores among control and experimental women at 0-, 3-, and 12-month interviews were 20.7 and 20.4, 15.5 and 15.0, and 14.6 and 13.5, respectively. No between-group differences were observed with respect to physical health, functional status, social and leisure activities, return to work, or marital satisfaction.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that, among patients who receive a minimal psychosocial intervention as part of their initial cancer care, a distress screening program does not improve quality of life. Minimal psychosocial intervention at initial treatment may be effective in reducing distress, thus making it difficult to obtain additional benefit from a screening program. Publication Types: * Clinical trial * Randomized controlled trial
Behav Med 1982 Jun;5(2):143-63
A measure of youthful family attitudes, the Closeness to Parents Scale, has continued to be predictive of cancer among physicians in a prospective study of medical students. Nonetheless, questions have remained concerning the meaning and reliability of this measure and whether its predictive value is diminishing over time. Perhaps more important, it is necessary to ascertain whether the relationship is the result of some methodological artifact or whether it is mediated by an association with known risk factors, such as smoking, drinking, and radiation exposure. Each of these issues was examined in turn, using a variety of statistical techniques to refine the scale and to equate cancer and control groups with respect to risk factors as well as possible artifacts. In a group of 913 men, it was found that the scale is primarily a function of good father-son relationships and that its association with later cancer persists even after the influence of possible mediating and artifactual variables is statistically controlled. Several possible explanations for these findings are discussed.
J Behav Med 1987 Oct;10(5):441-7
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205.
Using 14 personality measures obtained while the subjects were in medical school, the resulting profiles of 972 physicians were clustered into five groups using a two-stage cluster analysis procedure. Subjects were followed over a 30-year period to determine the cumulative survival rate (proportion of subjects remaining free of cancer) in each group. Statistically significant group differences in survival rate were found, with the group characterized by acting out and emotional expression having the most favorable curve (less than 1% developing cancer). The group characterized as "loners," who may well have suppressed their emotions, had the most unfavorable survival curve and was 16 times more likely to develop cancer than was the group characterized by acting out and emotional expression.
J Clin Psychol 1982 Oct;38(4):893-900
Scores on seven factors derived from a Habits of Work and Recreation Survey administered to 1,038 white male medical students 17 to 35 years ago were used to compare students who subsequently developed some form of major cancer with those who did not. With the Type I error rate controlled through use of multivariate analysis of variance and age and smoking ruled out as possible confounding variables, the two groups were significantly differentiated, primarily in terms of intellectual interests--cancer cases having fewer. Students at or below the overall mean on the intellectual interests measure were more than three times as likely to develop cancer as were students with scores above the mean. In this population, the results appear interpretable in terms of the stamina concept, in which few intellectual interests may reflect an absence of stamina and spontaneity and/or failure to meet subcultural expectations--factors possibly associated with increased cancer risk.
Psychiatry 1995 Nov;58(4):299-312
University of California, San Diego, USA.
LIFE stress, mood, and other psychosocial factors may help to explain variability in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) disease progression. Attempts to support this notion empirically have produced mixed findings; several studies report a positive relationship between psychosocial factors and various indicators of disease progression or immune function (e.g., Evans et al. 1992; Goodkin et. al. 1992), whereas others have failed to detect any association (e.g., Perry et. al. 1992).
Cancer Surv 1987;6(3):545-67
Department of Psychiatry, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco.
What this paper attempts, which may be different than previous reviews of the literature regarding the role of certain psychosocial factors and cancer initiation/progression, is to propose a model wherein seemingly discrepant findings may be integrated and understood. For this task, a representative but not an exhaustive review of studies was conducted, which revealed surprising consistencies, given the heterogeneity of designs, measures and cancer sites. Evidence converges on a constellation of factors that appears to predispose some individuals to develop cancer more readily or to progress more quickly through its stages. These factors include (a) certain personality traits or coping styles, which were discussed under the rubric of 'Type C'; (b) difficulty in expressing emotions; and (c) an attitude or tendency toward helplessness/hopelessness. Next, illustrative discrepancies across studies were presented. In order to make sense of these seemingly discrepant results, a process model of coping style and psychological-physiological homoeostasis was proposed. This model may be used to understand why some studies have found that Type C is associated with cancer outcome measures, while others have found that helplessness/hopelessness or emotional expression is related to outcome. We would expect that these differences are attributable to the point in the cancer and coping process at which psychological assessment was conducted.
J Psychosom Res 1985;29(2):139-53
This study investigated the relationship between prognosis (estimated by histopathologic indicators) in cutaneous malignant melanoma and a comprehensive set of physical risk, demographic, psychosocial, and situational variables. These variables were derived from the medical examination, the pathology report, psychosocial self-report measures, and an hour-long videotaped interview with 59 patients from two melanoma clinics in San Francisco. Variables significantly correlated with tumor thickness were: darker skin/hair/eye coloring, longer patient delay in seeking medical attention, two correlated dimensions within an operationally defined 'Type C' constellation of characteristics, two character style measures, and less previous knowledge of melanoma and understanding of its treatment. Of these variables, delay was the most significant in a hierarchical multiple regression analysis in which tumor thickness was the dependent variable. Associations between tumor thickness and psychosocial measures of Type C were considerably stronger and more significant for subjects less than age 55, suggesting that the role of behavioral and psychosocial factors in the course of malignant melanoma is more potent for younger than for older subjects.
Soc Sci Med 1985;20(8):833-40
A series of seven studies investigating biopsychosocial aspects of cutaneous malignant melanoma were conducted by a multidisciplinary group of researchers at the University of California, San Francisco. Two studies investigated the relationship of variables derived from a videotaped psychosocial interview and from self-report measures, and two histopathologic indicators: tumor thickness and level of invasion. Associations of psychosocial variables to prognostic indicators were stronger within the younger vs the older subject group. In a multiple regression analysis, patient delay in seeking medical attention emerged as the most significant variable predicting tumor thickness. A study of factors related to patient delay found longer delays in patients who had lesions on the back, less previous knowledge of melanoma, less understanding of its treatment and less minimization of its seriousness. Another study compared the repressive coping reactions--defined as the discrepancy between reported anxiety and that reflected in electrodermal activity--in melanoma patients, cardiovascular disease patients and disease-free controls. The melanoma group was significantly more 'repressed' on the combined self-report/physiological measure, as well as on other self-report measures of repressiveness. In order to investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors to more disease-relevant physiological variables, the next study focused on two clinical variables significantly predictive of disease outcome:mitotic rate of the tumor and lymphocytes at tumor site. Emotional expression of sadness and anger, rated from the videotaped interviews, was positively correlated with tumor-specific host-response factors and negatively correlated with mitotic rate. In another study, subjects who had died or had disease progression were matched on the basis of tumor and demographic characteristics with subjects who had no evidence of disease by follow-up. The unfavorable outcome group had higher scores on self-report scales of dysophoric emotion and distress which were administered one to three years previously. An experimental investigation of relationships among behavioral, physiological and tumor outcome variables in the Syrian hamster found that general activity was correlated positively with greater tumor growth following induction. These results were compared to those from the preceeding two human studies, and discussed in terms of a stress-arousal-coping model.
Cancer 1984 Dec 15;54(12):3048-53
This study investigated the relationship between patient delay in seeking medical attention and prognostic indicators, tumor characteristics, and demographic and behavioral factors in 106 patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma. Patients with less readily apparent lesions, particularly on the back, had longer delays in seeking treatment, as might be expected. The prognostically unfavorable nodular melanomas were detected more frequently by patients themselves than they were found during visits to physicians for unrelated problems. In terms of behavioral variables, patients with less knowledge of melanoma or its appropriate treatment had significantly longer delays. Patients who minimized the seriousness of their condition were more likely to seek treatment sooner, perhaps because this reduced fear and anxiety about the disease or its treatment. For superficial spreading melanoma, delay was significantly and positively correlated with Clark's level of invasion, and also with tumor thickness when only noncoincidentally diagnosed patients were included; whereas for the nodular type, delay was significantly and positively associated with tumor thickness, whether the patient was coincidentally diagnosed or not. The significance of these findings for early detection, and hence improved prognosis of malignant melanoma, is discussed.
Soc Sci Med 1985;20(8):789-94
Malignant neoplasm should not be viewed as a 'psychogenic' nor as a 'primarily organic' disease but as an interaction of various forces, in which psychosocial factors may play an important role. To understand the increase in neoplastic disease, which has taken place in this century, requires a theoretical framework including social, psychosocial and behavioural dimensions, as well as the endocrine and immunologic mechanisms acting as pathogenic pathways. Recent theoretical developments in health psychology and allied disciplines on coping behaviour and social support should be integrated into biomedical models of the aetiology, pathogenesis and clinical course of malignant neoplasia. Environmental stressors, as well as mediating variables at the cognitive, affective, behavioural and physiological levels of adaptation, are suggested as major components of a model of multidimensional pathology. A growing body of research on the role of psychosocial factors in adjustment to cancer and its treatment has contributed new insights into possible variables and causal mechanisms which may be relevant in the aetiology of the disease. Closeness to parents in childhood and the ability to form close interpersonal relationships in later adult life very possibly influence the ability of the individual to cope effectively with environmental stressors prior to neoplastic disease and with the considerable stresses of being a cancer patient subsequent to diagnosis and treatment. Pathogenic pathways for future investigation include mental health variables, such as self-esteem and sense of control, at the psychological level and immunity surveillance at the biological. An integration and cross-fertilization of current work in the aetiology of and adjustment to cancer is suggested linking psychosomatic and somatopsychic models.
Thorax 1998 Dec;53(12):1066-74
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Environmental stressors may impact asthma morbidity through neuroimmunological mechanisms which are adversely impacted and/or buffered y social networks, social support, and psychological functioning. In addition, life stress may impact on health beliefs and behaviours that may affect asthma management. Whereas earlier psychosomatic models have supported a role for psychological stress in contributing to variable asthma morbidity among those with existing disease, a growing appreciation of the interactions between behavioural, neural, endocrine, and immune processes suggest a role for these psychosocial factors in the genesis of asthma as well. While a causal link between stress and asthma has not bee established, this review provides a framework in which we can begin to see links between these systems that might provide new insights to guide future explorations. The complexity of these interactions underscore the need for a multidisciplinary approach which combines the idea that the origin of asthma is purely psychogenic in nature with the antithetical consideration that the biological aspects are all important. These distinctions are artificial, and future research that synthesizes biological, psychological, sociocultural, and family parameters is urgently needed to further our understanding of the rising burden of asthma.
J Clin Oncol 1988 Nov;6(11):1753-9
University of Pennsylvania Cancer Control Program, Philadelphia 19104-4283.
Professional and public interest in possible relationships between psychosocial factors and disease outcome continues to increase. Published research in this area, however, is marked by contradictory results. Positive relationships between a variety of psychosocial factors and length of survival from cancer are reported, but other studies uncover no such associations. In a previously reported prospective investigation of 359 patients with newly diagnosed malignant diseases, we found no relationship between clinical outcome and any psychosocial factor studied. We have continued to observe these patients, who are now up to 8 years post-diagnosis, and report here additional data on their disease outcomes as they relate to psychosocial factors assessed at diagnosis. Two groups of patients were studied: 204 patients with advanced, prognostically poor malignant disease at diagnosis; and 155 patients with intermediate or high-risk melanoma or breast cancer. Shortly after diagnosis, patients completed a self-report questionnaire that assessed seven psychosocial factors previously reported to predict longevity in the general population. Factors included social ties and marital history, job satisfaction, use of psychotropic drugs, general life satisfaction, subjective view of adult health, hopelessness, and perception of amount of adjustment required to cope with the new diagnosis. Clinical factors--performance status and extent of disease at diagnosis--predicted clinical outcome. No psychosocial factor consistently was associated with length of survival or remission. Results of additional exploratory analyses also are reported. Comments: (SIGMA) Comment in: J Clin Oncol 1989 Apr;7(4):541-2
Psychosom Med 1999 Jul-Aug;61(4):411-9
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test predictive models of schizophrenia caregiver burden and infectious illness episodes for caregivers who had regular contact with their mentally ill family members.
METHODS: A nurse interviewer, blind to the patient's symptoms, caregiver burden, and psychosocial status, administered the Health Review to 70 caregivers. A second family interviewer, blind to caregiver health status and patient symptoms, assessed caregiver resources (eg, active coping and social support), vulnerabilities (eg, anger expression and passive coping) and burden. Concurrently, independent patient raters, blind to caregiver health and psychosocial status, assessed caregiver stressors. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and the Modified Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms were used to assess the severity of positive (eg, hallucinations and delusions) and negative (eg, anhedonia and asociality) symptoms, respectively.
RESULTS: Predictive models, including measures of stressors, resources, and vulnerability factors for caregiver burden and for presence of infectious illness, were each highly significant, accounting for 40% and 29% of the variance, respectively. However, the specific measures that predicted burden and infectious illness differed. Greater burden was predicted by more severe patient negative symptoms (stressor), greater anger control and blame self-coping (vulnerability), and decreased tangible social support (resource). Presence of infectious illness episodes was predicted by more severe patient positive symptoms (stressor) and less satisfaction with social support while controlling for the frequency of reporting on the Health Review. When scores from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (stressors) were categorized into quartiles, it was found that the frequency of infectious illness in the highest quartile was four times that in the lowest quartile. Other results indicated that even though burden was not associated with infectious illness, it was associated with "continuing health problems," perceived stress, and depression.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that although schizophrenia caregiver burden and infectious illness are predicted by measures of patient stressors, vulnerabilities, and resources, the specific measures predicting these outcomes differ. The results also call attention to the powerful influence of patient symptoms as a predictor of burden and the presence of infectious illness among caregivers.
OBJECTIF : L'objectif de l'étude était de tester les modèles prédictifs du fardeau des donneurs de soins à des schizophrènes et les épisodes infectieux pour ceux qui étaient en contact régulier avec le membre malade de la famille.
MÉTHODE : une infirmière d'entretien, ignorante des symptomes du patient, du fardeau du donneur de soins et de son statut psychosocial a fait passer un questionnaire de santé à 70 donneurs de soin. Une seconde enquêteuse familiale, ne connaissant pas l'état de santé du donneur de soins et les sympôtmes du patient a évalué les ressources du donneur de soin (comportement actif et support social), les vulnérabilités (expression de la colère et comportement passif) et le fardeau. De façon parallèle, les évaluateurs indépendants du patient, ne connaissant pas l'état de santé du donneur de soins et son statut psychosocial, ont mesuré les stress des donneurs de soins. Les symptomes positifs et négatifs sont mesurés.
RESULTATS :Un fardeau plus important est prédit par des symptomes négatifs plus importants (stresseur), un comportement de contrôle de la colère et de culpabilité (vulnérabilité) et une réduction du support social tangible (resource).. La présence de maladies infectieuses était prédictible par des sympotmes positifs du patient plus sévères (stresseur) et moins de satifsfaction avec le support social. Ainsi les maladies infectieuses étaient 4 fois plus fréquentes quand les sympotmes positifs sont importants. Même si le fardeau n'était pas associé avec des maladies infectieuses, il était associé avec des "problèmes permanents de santé", stress perçu et dépression.
Kao Hsiung I Hsueh Ko Hsueh Tsa Chih 1999 Jun;15(6):359-71
School of Nursing, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Republic of China.
The major purposes of this paper are to explore the phenomena of family structure, illness symptoms, family coping and adaptation for patients with schizophrenia or manic-depression psychosis. This paper tries to provide a good reference instrument for application by nurses in home care, in order to understand and evaluate family needs. Subjects are schizophrenic or manic-depression outpatients from 3 hospitals located in northern Taiwan. Data were collected through home interview with primary caregivers and observations. There were fifty subjects from each of the 3 hospitals, and 151 subjects in total. Descriptive statistics, t-test, one way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and multiple stepwise correlation were used to analyze data. Research indicates that most patients are aged between 31 to 40, with over 10 years elapsed since onset, and are not married. Most primary caregivers are parents over 60 years old. Most family development was at the stage with young adult offspring. The manic-depressive patients have more working opportunities than schizophrenic patients. For schizophrenic patients, paranoia was the most serious in active symptoms; lack of interpersonal interaction was the most serious in negative symptoms; the other major problem was sleep disturbance in emotion-behavior assessment. Patient's disposition was the most concerning issue for families and the worst coping efficiency occurred with lazy behavior and sleep disturbance. For manic-depressive patients, aggressive behavior was the most serious active symptom, lack of energy was the most serious in negative symptom, and sleep disturbance was the most concerning problem in emotion-behavior assessment. The patient's symptom was the most concerning issue for families and the worst coping efficiency was found in drug side effect. The result also indicates that active and negative symptoms are both related to coping efficiency.
Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999 Aug;56(8):756-62
Institute of Psychotherapy and Medical Psychology, University of Wurzburg, Germany.
BACKGROUND: This study addresses the question of whether coping and emotional state are predictors of survival among patients with lung cancer. The hypotheses were (1) active coping is linked with longer survival time and (2) depressive coping, emotional distress, and depression are linked with shorter survival.
METHODS: The study was based on a sample of 103 patients who were investigated after their diagnosis and before the beginning of primary treatment. The psychological variables were assessed by means of self-reports and interviewer ratings. After follow-up of 7 to 8 years, 92 patients had died; survival data were censored for the remaining 11 patients. The prediction of the survival time was performed by the Cox regression, while adjusting for biomedical risk factors (tumor stage, histological classification, and Karnofsky performance status).
RESULTS: The self-reported depressive coping (P = .007) and the interviewer-rated emotional distress (P = .04) were significantly associated with shorter survival, independent of the influence of the biomedical prognostic factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Both coping and emotional distress had a statistically independent effect on survival among patients with lung cancer. However, the naturalistic design of the study does not allow for any causal interpretation. Thus, the nature of this relationship warrants further investigation.
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999 Jun 22;876:419-25
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, Italy.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory chronic disease with an autoimmune pathogenesis and a complex multifactorial etiology. Various factors such as immunogenetic determinants, sex, age, and stress play an important role. The relationship between stress and RA is still unclear and undefined; however, various lines of research are developing in order to evaluate environmental, psychologic, and biologic stressors as predisposing factors. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether stress-related psychologic factors and personality disorders might be involved in the development of RA, by using a psychometric investigation-methodology in a series of patients. Fifteen in- and outpatients underwent a clinical interview and other specific psychometric tests. Macro- and microstressful life-events preceded RA onset in 86% of the cases. Sixty percent of the patients showed a correlation between flare-ups of the disease and appearance of microevents. Forty percent of the patients showed an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), 40% showed a borderline personality disorder (BPD), 7% showed a schizoid and a dependent disorder. Only 13% of the patients showed no personality disorders. Among the BPD group we also detected alexithymia. Our results should be considered as preliminary; on the other hand, the high prevalence of major life-events preceding the onset of RA and the presence of personality disorders support the role of the altered stress response system as an important pathogenetic factor and will be a matter of further studies.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999;249(2):86-95
MRC Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Public Health, Cambridge, UK.
Knowledge concerning the temporal relationship between adverse experiences and the onset of anxiety and depressive disorders remains sparse despite life stress forming a pivotal component to social, neurological and cognitive science models of their aetiology. In this study two groups of married women were selected through their shared adverse experiences; for one group, the marital partner had recently died, and in the second group, the marital partner had recently experienced a myocardial infarction. These groups were assessed in close proximity to their event experiences and again approximately 3 months later. Adaptations of both the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation and the Life Event and Difficulty Schedule were used to provide a detailed clinical and event history both preceding and following their experiences. Analysis showed clear evidence for the progressive decay in the adverse effects of life events over time; an attribute thus far largely neglected in work seeking to clarify event-illness relationships. Comparisons between fixed and time-varying effects, representative of precisely formulated models of vulnerability/resilience, confirmed the role both of previous psychiatric consultation history and of limited individual coping skills as risk factors for the onset of diagnosable disorder. Improvements in the specification of stress modelling procedures should facilitate the integration of ideas from competing aetiological models of the onset and subsequent course of anxiety and depressive disorder.
Psychosom Med 1999 May-Jun;61(3):397-406
Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill 27599-7160, USA. Leserman@css.unc.edu
OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of stress, depressive symptoms, and social support on the progression of HIV infection. METHODS: Eighty-two HIV-infected gay men without symptoms or AIDS at baseline were followed up every 6 months for up to 5.5 years. Men were recruited from rural and urban areas in North Carolina as part of the Coping in Health and Illness Project. Disease progression was defined using criteria for AIDS (CD4+ lymphocyte count of < 200/microl and/or an AIDS-indicator condition).
RESULTS: We used Cox regression models with time-dependent covariates, adjusting for age, education, race, baseline CD4+ count, tobacco use, and number of antiretroviral medications. Faster progression to AIDS was associated with more cumulative stressful life events (p = .002), more cumulative depressive symptoms (p = .008), and less cumulative social support (p = .0002). When all three variables were analyzed together, stress and social support remained significant in the model. At 5.5 years, the probability of getting AIDS was about two to three times as high among those above the median on stress or below the median on social support compared with those below the median on stress or above the median on support, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: These data are among the first to demonstrate that more stress and less social support may accelerate the course of HIV disease progression. Additional study will be necessary to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie these relationships and to determine whether interventions that address stress and social support can alter the course of HIV infection.
Nurs Ethics 1999 Mar;6(2):137-43
Faculty of Nursing and Health Care, Centre for Professional Studies, Bodo Regional University, Norway. The aim of this study was to generate knowledge about how parents who have been part of an ethical decision-making process concerning a son or daughter in a neonatal unit experience life with a severely disabled child. A descriptive study design was chosen using 30 hours of field observations and seven in-depth interviews, carried out over a period of five months with parents who had been faced with ethical decisions concerning their own children in a neonatal unit. Strauss and Glaser's constant comparative method was used for the analysis. The findings seem to indicate that these parents have an extremely tough life. Their relationships with their children are somewhat ambivalent. The children are very dependent on their parents, who in some ways both love and hate them. Too little rest and sleep and feeding the children are the most serious problems. The parents require respite facilities. The home can seem like a prison, from which it is impossible to escape. It is like having a baby who never grows up.
Dernière mise à jour : vendredi 29 octobre 1999 17:02:16
Dr Jean-Michel Thurin